Bible - Versions and translations

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Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Versions and translations The original texts of the Tanakh were mainly in Hebrew, with some portions in Aramaic. In addition to the authoritative Masoretic Text, Jews still refer to the Septuagint, the translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, and the Targum Onkelos, an Aramaic version of the Bible. There are several different ancient versions of the Tanakh in Hebrew, mostly differing by spelling, and the traditional Jewish version is based on the version known as Aleppo Codex. Even in this version there are words which are traditionally read differently from written, because the oral tradition is considered more fundamental than the written one, and presumably mistakes had been made in copying the text over the generations. citation needed citation needed The primary biblical text for early Christians was the Septuagint. In addition, they translated the Hebrew Bible into several other languages. Translations were made into Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic, and Latin, among other languages. The Latin translations were historically the most important for the Church in the West, while the Greek speaking East continued to use the Septuagint translations of the Old Testament and had no need to translate the New Testament. The earliest Latin translation was the Old Latin text, or Vetus Latina, which, from internal evidence, seems to have been made by several authors over a period of time. It was based on the Septuagint, and thus included books not in the Hebrew Bible. Vetus Latina According to the Latin Decretum Gelasianum (also known as the Gelasian Decree), thought to be of a 6th century document of uncertain authorship and of pseudepigraphal papal authority (variously ascribed to Pope Gelasius I, Pope Damasus I, or Pope Hormisdas) but reflecting the views of the Roman Church by that period, the Council of Rome in 382 AD under Pope Damasus I (366–383) assembled a list of books of the Bible. Damasus commissioned Saint Jerome to produce a reliable and consistent text by translating the original Greek and Hebrew texts into Latin. This translation became known as the Latin Vulgate Bible, in the fourth century AD (although Jerome expressed in his prologues to most deuterocanonical books that they were non canonical). In 1546, at the Council of Trent, Jerome's Vulgate translation was declared by the Roman Catholic Church to be the only authentic and official Bible in the Latin Church. deuterocanonical Since the Protestant Reformation, Bible translations for many languages have been made. The Bible continues to be translated to new languages, largely by Christian organizations such as Wycliffe Bible Translators, New Tribes Mission and Bible societies.

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Number of Data columns : 2 Number of Data rows : 4
Categories : economy, demography, politics, knowledge

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- Social, economical, and energetic aspects - Subsidies

From WIKIPEDIA

Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Subsidies Asia Asia China China In 2014, total rail spending by China was $130 billion and is likely to remain at a similar rate for the rest of the country's next Five Year Period (2016–2020). India India The Indian railways are subsidized by around ₹400 billion (US$5.6 billion), of which around 60% goes to commuter rail and short haul trips. It is the fourth largest railway network in the world comprising 119,630 kilometres (74,330 miles) of total track and 92,081 km (57,216 mi) of running track over a route of 66,687 km (41,437 mi) with 7,216 stations at the end of 2015–16. ₹400 billion ₹ fourth largest railway network in the world Europe Europe According to the 2017 European Railway Performance Index for intensity of use, quality of service and safety performance, the top tier European national rail systems consists of Switzerland, Denmark, Finland, ­Germany, Austria, Sweden, and France. Performance levels reveal a positive correlation between public cost and a given railway system’s performance, and also reveal differences in the value that countries receive in return for their public cost. Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland capture relatively high value for their money, while Luxembourg, Belgium, Latvia, Slovakia, Portugal, Romania, and Bulgaria underperform relative to the average ratio of performance to cost among European countries.

and, subsidies, year, country, energetic

Armorial des communes du Calvados - L

From WIKIPEDIA

Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. L Langrune sur Mer D'azur aux trois coquilles d'argent, à la bordure cousue de gueules chargée de huit besants aussi d'argent.

l, communes, des, armorial, calvados

- Histoire - Époque moderne

From WIKIPEDIA

Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Époque moderne En octobre 1918, lors de la bataille d'Alep, la ville est enlevée aux Turcs par les insurgés arabes et les Britanniques d'Edmund Allenby. Elle est rattachée à la Syrie sous mandat français. Elle est l'éphémère capitale de l'État d'Alep entre 1920 et 1925. Agatha Christie y séjourne en 1930. Cependant, jusqu’en 1940, le tissu historique reste presque intact, une majorité des Alépins continuant de vivre dans la vieille ville. En 1944, la population de la ville s'élève à environ 325 000 habitants dont 112 110 (34,5 %) sont chrétiens (parmi lesquels 60 200 sont d'origine arménienne). En décembre 1947, le pogrom d'Alep, une émeute antisémite, éclate dans la ville faisant 75 morts et de nombreuses destructions dans la communauté juive locale. Le jardin public d'Alep est inauguré en 1949 ; de grands travaux modernisent la ville à cette époque. En 1973, après que Hafez el Assad a proposé une constitution laïque pour le pays, des émeutes islamistes éclatent à Alep. Celui ci est contraint de trouver un compromis et fait inscrire dans la Constitution que le Président doit être musulman. La fin des années 1970 est marquée par le massacre de l'École d'artillerie d'Alep le 16 juin 1979 par les Frères musulmans qui exécutent 83 cadets de l'armée, principalement des alaouites. 16 juin 1979 À partir des années 1990, suite à des mesures de libéralisation des échanges avec la Turquie, la ville connaît une période de croissance, et devient la capitale économique du pays, appréciée pour son dynamisme et son esprit d'entreprise. Elle connaît également une forte croissance démographique provoquée par un exode rural.

epoque, moderne, 1944, 1925, d