Romani language - Morphology - Verbs

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Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Verbs Romani derivations are highly synthetic and partly agglutinative. However, they are also sensitive to recent development for example, in general, Romani in Slavic countries show an adoption of productive aktionsart morphology. The core of the verb is the lexical root, verb morphology is suffixed. The verb stem (including derivation markers) by itself has non perfective aspect and is present or subjunctive. Types Types Similarly to nominals, verbs in Romani belong to several classes, but unlike nominals, these are not based on historical origin. However, the loaned verbs can be recognized, again, by specific endings, which some argue are Greek in origin. Irregular verbs Irregular verbs Some words are irregular, like te jel to be. te jel te jel Class I Class I The next three classes are recognizable by suffix in 3rd person singular. The first class, called I., has a suffix el in 3rd person singular. el el Examples, in 3 ps. sg: te kerel te kerel te šunel te šunel te dikhel te dikhel Class II Class II Words in the second category, called II., have a suffix l in 3rd person singular. l l Examples, in 3 ps. sg: te džal te džal te ladžal te ladžal te asal te asal te paťal te paťal te hal te hal Class III Class III All the words in the third class are semantically causative passive. Examples: te sikhľol te sikhľol te labol te labol to marďol to marďol te pašľol te pašľol Borrowed verbs Borrowed verbs Borrowed verbs from other languages are marked with affixes taken from Greek tense/aspect suffixes, including iz , in , and is . iz iz in in is is Morphology Morphology The Romani verb has three persons and two numbers, singular and plural. There is no verbal distinction between masculine and feminine. Romani tenses are, not exclusively, present tense, future tense, two past tenses (perfect and imperfect), present or past conditional and present imperative. Depending on the dialect, the suffix a marks the present, future, or conditional. There are many perfective suffixes, which are determined by root phonology, valency, and semantics: e.g. ker d 'did'. a a ker d ker d There are two sets of personal conjugation suffixes, one for non perfective verbs, and another for perfective verbs. The non perfective personal suffixes, continued from Middle Indo Aryan, are as follows: Non perfective personal suffixes av av es es el el as as en en These are slightly different for consonant and vowel final roots (e.g. xa s 'you eat', kam es 'you want'). xa s xa s kam es kam es The perfective suffixes, deriving from late Middle Indo Aryan enclitic pronouns, are as follows: Perfective personal suffixes om om al al an an as as am am an an en en e e Verbs may also take a further remoteness suffix as / ahi / ys / s. With non perfective verbs this marks the imperfect, habitual, or conditional. With the perfective, this marks the pluperfect or counterfactual. as as ahi ahi ys ys s s Class I Class I All the persons and numbers of present tense of the word te kerel te kerel te kerel me kerav me kerav amen keras amen keras tu keres tu keres tumen keren tumen keren jov kerel jov kerel jon keren jon keren Various tenses of the same word, all in 2nd person singular. tu keres tu keres tu ka keres tu ka keres tu kerehas tu kerehas tu kerďal tu kerďal ker ker d d 'al 'al tu kerďalas tu kerďalas ker ker d d 'al 'al as as ker! ker! Class II Class II All the persons and numbers of present tense of the word te paťal te paťal te paťal me paťav me paťav amen paťas amen paťas tu paťas tu paťas tumen paťan tumen paťan jov paťal jov paťal jon paťan jon paťan Various tenses of the word te chal, all in 2nd person singular. te chal te chal tu dzas tu dzas tu dzaha tu dzaha tu dzahas tu dzahas tu dzaľom tu dzaľom tu paťas tu paťas tu paťaňom tu paťaňom tu dzaľahas tu dzaľahas dzaľa! dzaľa! Class III Class III All the persons and numbers of present tense of the word te pašľol. Note the added uv , which is typical for this group. te pašľol te pašľol uv uv

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