Oulton Park - Major race results - British Formula Three season

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Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. British Formula Three season

Data Source : WIKIPEDIA
Number of Data columns : 4 Number of Data rows : 110
Categories : economy, demography, politics, knowledge


Data row number Year Race Driver Car

Download the dataset to see the full list of 110 entries

Data Columns

Name Description Data Type
Year integer
Race text
Driver text
Car text

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CD-ROM - CD-ROM drives - Transfer rates


Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Transfer rates CD ROM drives are rated with a speed factor relative to music CDs. If a CD ROM is read at the same rotational speed as an audio CD, the data transfer rate is 150 KiB/s, commonly called '1×'. At this data rate, the track moves along under the laser spot at about 1.2 m/s. To maintain this linear velocity as the optical head moves to different positions, the angular velocity is varied from 500 rpm at the inner edge to 200 rpm at the outer edge. The 1× speed rating for CD ROM (150 KiB/s) is different from the 1× speed rating for DVDs (1.32 MiB/s). By increasing the speed at which the disc is spun, data can be transferred at greater rates. For example, a CD ROM drive that can read at 8× speed spins the disc at 1600 to 4000 rpm, giving a linear velocity of 9.6 m/s and a transfer rate of 1200 KiB/s. Above 12× speed most drives read at Constant angular velocity (CAV, constant rpm) so that the motor is not made to change from one speed to another as the head seeks from place to place on the disc. In CAV mode the '×' number denotes the transfer rate at the outer edge of the disc, where it is a maximum.20× was thought to be the maximum speed due to mechanical constraints until Samsung Electronics introduced the SCR 3230, a 32x CD ROM drive which uses a ball bearing system to balance the spinning disc in the drive to reduce vibration and noise. As of 2004, the fastest transfer rate commonly available is about 52× or 10,400 rpm and 7.62 MiB/s. Higher spin speeds are limited by the strength of the polycarbonate plastic of which the discs are made. At 52×, the linear velocity of the outermost part of the disc is around 65 m/s. However, improvements can still be obtained using multiple laser pickups as demonstrated by the Kenwood TrueX 72× which uses seven laser beams and a rotation speed of approximately 10×. The first 12× drive was released in late 1996. Above 12× speed, there are problems with vibration and heat. CAV drives give speeds up to 30× at the outer edge of the disc with the same rotational speed as a standard constant linear velocity (CLV) 12×, or 32× with a slight increase. However, due to the nature of CAV (linear speed at the inner edge is still only 12×, increasing smoothly in between) the actual throughput increase is less than 30/12: in fact, roughly 20× average for a completely full disc, and even less for a partially filled one. Problems with vibration, owing to limits on achievable symmetry and strength in mass produced media, mean that CD ROM drive speeds have not massively increased since the late 1990s. Over 10 years later, commonly available drives vary between 24× (slimline and portable units, 10× spin speed) and 52× (typically CD and read only units, 21× spin speed), all using CAV to achieve their claimed 'max' speeds, with 32× through 48× most common. Even so, these speeds can cause poor reading (drive error correction having become very sophisticated in response) and even shattering of poorly made or physically damaged media, with small cracks rapidly growing into catastrophic breakages when centripetally stressed at 10,000–13,000 rpm (i.e. 40–52× CAV). High rotational speeds also produce undesirable noise from disc vibration, rushing air and the spindle motor itself. Most 21st century drives allow forced low speed modes (by use of small utility programs) for the sake of safety, accurate reading or silence, and will automatically fall back if numerous sequential read errors and retries are encountered. Other methods of improving read speed were trialled such as using multiple optical beams, increasing throughput up to 72× with a 10× spin speed, but along with other technologies like 90~99 minute recordable media and 'double density' recorders, their utility was nullified by the introduction of consumer DVD ROM drives capable of consistent 36× CD ROM speeds (4× DVD) or higher. Additionally, with a 700 MB CD ROM fully readable in under 2½ minutes at 52× CAV, increases in actual data transfer rate are decreasingly influential on overall effective drive speed when taken into consideration with other factors such as loading/unloading, media recognition, spin up/down and random seek times, making for much decreased returns on development investment. A similar stratification effect has since been seen in DVD development where maximum speed has stabilised at 16× CAV (with exceptional cases between 18× and 22×) and capacity at 4.3 and 8.5 GiB (single and dual layer), with higher speed and capacity needs instead being catered to by Blu ray drives. CD Recordable drives are often sold with three different speed ratings, one speed for write once operations, one for re write operations, and one for read only operations. The speeds are typically listed in that order; i.e. a 12×/10×/32× CD drive can, CPU and media permitting, write to CD R discs at 12× speed (1.76 MiB/s), write to CD RW discs at 10× speed (1.46 MiB/s), and read from CDs at 32× speed (4.69 MiB/s).

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Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Qashqadaryo

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