1971 Indianapolis 500 - Race results - Race statistics

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Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Race statistics Approximate lap counts Approximate lap counts

Data Source : WIKIPEDIA
Number of Data columns : 1 Number of Data rows : 4
Categories : economy, demography, politics, knowledge


Data row number Tire participation chart

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Data Columns

Name Description Data Type
Tire participation chart text

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Oval track racing - Track classification (shape) - Unique shapes


Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Unique shapes There are a lot of oval tracks, which neither have a classical geometric shape nor still represent a modern tri oval in the strict sense. While these courses still technically fall under the category of ovals, their unique shape, flat corners, hard braking zones, or increased difficulty, often produces driving characteristics similar to those of a road course.

shape, oval, unique, shapes, track

MP3 - History - Standardization


Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Standardization In 1991, there were two available proposals that were assessed for an MPEG audio standard: MUSICAM (Masking pattern adapted Universal Subband Integrated Coding And Multiplexing) and ASPEC (Adaptive Spectral Perceptual Entropy Coding). As proposed by the Dutch corporation Philips, the French research institute CCETT, and the German standards organization Institute for Broadcast Technology, the MUSICAM technique was chosen due to its simplicity and error robustness, as well as for its high level of computational efficiency. The MUSICAM format, based on sub band coding, became the basis for the MPEG Audio compression format, incorporating, for example, its frame structure, header format, sample rates, etc. M U S I C A M A S P E C While much of MUSICAM technology and ideas were incorporated into the definition of MPEG Audio Layer I and Layer II, the filter bank alone and the data structure based on 1152 samples framing (file format and byte oriented stream) of MUSICAM remained in the Layer III (MP3) format, as part of the computationally inefficient hybrid filter bank. Under the chairmanship of Professor Musmann of the University of Hanover, the editing of the standard was delegated to Dutchman Leon van de Kerkhof, to German Gerhard Stoll, to Frenchman Yves François Dehery, who worked on Layer I and Layer II. ASPEC was the joint proposal of AT&T Bell Laboratories, Thomson Consumer Electronics, Fraunhofer Society and CNET. It provided the highest coding efficiency. A working group consisting of van de Kerkhof, Stoll, Italian Leonardo Chiariglione (CSELT VP for Media), Frenchman Yves François Dehery, German Karlheinz Brandenburg, and American James D. Johnston (United States) took ideas from ASPEC, integrated the filter bank from Layer II, added some of their own ideas such as the joint stereo coding of MUSICAM and created the MP3 format, which was designed to achieve the same quality at 128 kbit/s as MP2 at 192 kbit/s. The algorithms for MPEG 1 Audio Layer I, II and III were approved in 1991 and finalized in 1992 as part of MPEG 1, the first standard suite by MPEG, which resulted in the international standard ISO/IEC 11172 3 (a.k.a. MPEG 1 Audio or MPEG 1 Part 3), published in 1993. Files or data streams conforming to this standard must handle sample rates of 48k, 44100 and 32k and continue to be supported by current MP3 players and decoders. Thus the first generation of MP3 defined 14*3=42 interpretations of MP3 frame data structures and size layouts. ISO/IEC 11172 3 MPEG 1 Audio MPEG 1 Part 3 Further work on MPEG audio was finalized in 1994 as part of the second suite of MPEG standards, MPEG 2, more formally known as international standard ISO/IEC 13818 3 (a.k.a. MPEG 2 Part 3 or backwards compatible MPEG 2 Audio or MPEG 2 Audio BC), originally published in 1995. MPEG 2 Part 3 (ISO/IEC 13818 3) defined 42 additional bit rates and sample rates for MPEG 1 Audio Layer I, II and III. The new sampling rates are exactly half that of those originally defined in MPEG 1 Audio. This reduction in sampling rate serves to cut the available frequency fidelity in half while likewise cutting the bitrate by 50%.MPEG 2 Part 3 also enhanced MPEG 1's audio by allowing the coding of audio programs with more than two channels, up to 5.1 multichannel. An MP3 coded with MPEG 2 results in half of the bandwidth reproduction of MPEG 1 appropriate for piano and singing. ISO/IEC 13818 3 MPEG 2 Part 3 MPEG 2 Audio MPEG 2 Audio BC A third generation of 'MP3' style data streams (files) extended the MPEG 2 ideas and implementation but was named MPEG 2.5 audio, since MPEG 3 already had a different meaning. This extension was developed at Fraunhofer IIS, the registered patent holders of MP3 by reducing the frame sync field in the MP3 header from 12 to 11 bits. As in the transition from MPEG 1 to MPEG 2, MPEG 2.5 adds additional sampling rates exactly half of those available using MPEG 2. It thus widens the scope of MP3 to include human speech and other applications yet requires only 25% of the bandwidth (frequency reproduction) possible using MPEG 1 sampling rates. While not an ISO recognized standard, MPEG 2.5 is widely supported by both inexpensive Chinese and brand name digital audio players as well as computer software based MP3 encoders (LAME), decoders (FFmpeg) and players (MPC) adding 3*8=24 additional MP3 frame types. Each generation of MP3 thus supports 3 sampling rates exactly half that of the previous generation for a total of 9 varieties of MP3 format files. The sample rate comparison table between MPEG 1, 2 and 2.5 is given later in the article. MPEG 2.5 is supported by LAME (since 2000), Media Player Classic (MPC), iTunes, and FFmpeg. MPEG 2 MPEG 2.5 MPEG 2.5 was not developed by MPEG (see above) and was never approved as an international standard. MPEG 2.5 is thus an unofficial or proprietary extension to the MP3 format. It is nonetheless ubiquitous and especially advantageous for low bit rate human speech applications.

mp3, standardization, standard, international, first

2009 Philadelphia Phillies season - Regular season - Game log


Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Game log Myers Moyer Condrey Lidge Hamels Myers Madson Lidge Moyer Lidge Blanton Madson Lidge Condrey Moyer Blanton Hamels Condrey (10) Madson Lidge Moyer Happ Madson Durbin Myers Park (10) Taschner Blanton Myers Eyre Moyer Hamels Blanton Taschner Park Lidge Moyer (10) Durbin (12) Happ (DH 1) Myers Lidge (DH 2) (6) Carpenter Condrey Escalona Lidge Hamels Lidge Moyer Blanton Myers Lidge (11) Condrey Moyer Blanton Lidge Myers Happ Lidge Hamels Lidge Moyer Lidge Blanton Lidge Bastardo Madson Happ Hamels Lidge Durbin Bastardo Condrey (11) Park Madson (10) Eyre Madson (13) Kendrick Bastardo Park (10) Condrey Moyer Madson Bastardo Madson Hamels Moyer Blanton Bastardo Hamels Happ Moyer Lidge (10) Park Hamels Madson López Moyer Lidge Blanton Lidge Hamels Lidge Madson Moyer Lidge Blanton Lidge Walker Happ All Star Break Moyer (12) Condrey Lidge Happ López Durbin (13) Condrey Moyer Hamels Happ López Blanton Moyer Hamels Lidge Happ López Lee Blanton Hamels Moyer Happ Lee Lidge Blanton Hamels Moyer (12) Eyre Durbin Martínez Lee Madson Lidge Lidge Happ Lidge Moyer Lee Blanton Hamels Happ Lidge Martínez Lidge Lee Lidge (10) Madson Happ Moyer Lidge (8) Lee Blanton Lidge Hamels Happ Martínez Lidge Lee Lidge Hamels Park Martínez Madson Lee Madson Blanton Hamels Madson Madson (DH 1) Kendrick Lidge (DH 2) Martínez Madson Lee Blanton Hamels Lidge Kendrick Martínez Walker Lidge (DH 1) Blanton (DH 2) Moyer Lidge Happ Lee Walker Blanton Madson Hamels Happ Madson Kendrick

game, log, season, lidge, moyer