Cork North-Central (Dáil constituency) - Elections - November 1982 general election

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Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. November 1982 general election

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Data row number November 1982 general election: Cork North-Central

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Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Vowels Here is the vowel system reconstructed for earlier Egyptian: Earlier Egyptian vowel system i iː u uː a aː Vowels are always short in unstressed syllables (⟨tpj⟩ = */taˈpij/ 'first') and long in open stressed syllables (⟨rmṯ⟩ = */ˈraːmac/ 'man'), they but can be either short or long in closed stressed syllables (⟨jnn⟩ = */jaˈnan/ 'we', ⟨mn⟩ = */maːn/ 'to stay'). */taˈpij/ */ˈraːmac/ */jaˈnan/ */maːn/ In the Late New Kingdom, after Ramses II, around 1200 BC, */ˈaː/ changes to */ˈoː/ (like the Canaanite shift), ⟨ḥrw⟩ '(the god) Horus' */ħaːra/ > */ħoːrə/ (Akkadian transcription: ḫuru). */uː/, therefore, changes to */eː/: ⟨šnj⟩ 'tree' */ʃuːn(?)j/ > */ʃeːnə/ (Akkadian transcription: sini). */ˈaː/ */ˈoː/ */ħaːra/ */ħoːrə/ */uː/ */eː/ */ʃuːn(?)j/ */ʃeːnə/ In the Early New Kingdom, short stressed */ˈi/ changes to */ˈe/: ⟨mnj⟩ 'Menes' */maˈnij/ > */maˈneʔ/ (Akkadian transcription: ma né e). Later, probably 1000–800 BC, a short stressed */ˈu/ changes to */ˈe/: ⟨ḏꜥn.t⟩ 'Tanis' */ˈɟuʕnat/ was borrowed into Hebrew as *ṣuʕn but would become transcribed as ⟨ṣe e' nu/ṣa a' nu⟩ during the Neo Assyrian Empire. */ˈi/ */ˈe/ */maˈnij/ */maˈneʔ/ */ˈu/ */ˈe/ */ˈɟuʕnat/ Unstressed vowels, especially after a stress, become */ə/: ⟨nfr⟩ 'good' */ˈnaːfir/ > */ˈnaːfə/ (Akkadian transcription na a pa). */iː/ changes to */eː/ next to /ʕ/ and /j/: ⟨wꜥw⟩ 'soldier' */wiːʕiw/ > */weːʕə/ (earlier Akkadian transcription: ú i ú, later: ú e eḫ). */ə/ */ˈnaːfir/ */ˈnaːfə/ */iː/ */eː/ /ʕ/ /j/ */wiːʕiw/ */weːʕə/ Egyptian vowel system c. 1000 BC iː e eː ə oː a In Sahidic and Bohairic Coptic, Late Egyptian stressed */ˈa/ becomes */ˈo/ and */ˈe/ becomes /ˈa/, but are unchanged in the other dialects: ⟨sn⟩ */san/ 'brother' > Sahaidic and Bohairic ⟨son⟩, Akhminic, Lycopolitan and Fayyumic ⟨san⟩; ⟨rn⟩ 'name' */rin/ > */ren/ > Sahaidic and Bohairic ⟨ran⟩, Akhminic, Lycopolitan and Fayyumic ⟨ren⟩. However, Sahaidic and Bohairic preserve */ˈa/, and Fayyumic renders it as ⟨e⟩ in the presence of guttural fricatives: ⟨ḏbꜥ⟩ 'ten thousand' */ˈbaʕ/ > Sahaidic, Akhmimic and Lycopolitan ⟨tba⟩, Bohairic ⟨tʰba⟩, Fayyumic ⟨tbe⟩. In Akhmimic and Lycopolitan, */ˈa/ becomes /ˈo/ before etymological /ʕ, ʔ/: ⟨jtrw⟩ 'river' */ˈjatraw/ > */jaʔr(ə)/ > Sahaidic ⟨eioor(e)⟩, Bohairic ⟨ior⟩, Akhminic ⟨ioore, iôôre⟩, Fayyumic ⟨iaal, iaar⟩. Similarly, the diphthongs */ˈaj/, */ˈaw/, which normally have reflexes /ˈoj/, /ˈow/ in Sahidic and are preserved in other dialects, are in Bohairic ⟨ôi⟩ (in non final position) and ⟨ôou⟩ respectively: 'to me, to them' Sahidic ⟨eroi, eroou⟩, Akhminic and Lycopolitan ⟨arai, arau⟩, Fayyumic ⟨elai, elau⟩, Bohairic ⟨eroi, erôou⟩. Sahidic and Bohairic preserve */ˈe/ before /ʔ/ (etymological or from lenited /t r j/ or tonic syllable coda /w/),: Sahidic and Bohairic ⟨ne⟩ /neʔ/ 'to you (fem.)' < */ˈnet/ < */ˈnic/. */e/ may also have different reflexes before sonants, near sibilants and in diphthongs. */ˈa/ */ˈo/ */ˈe/ /ˈa/ */san/ */rin/ */ren/ */ˈa/ */ˈbaʕ/ */ˈa/ /ˈo/ /ʕ, ʔ/ */ˈjatraw/ */jaʔr(ə)/ */ˈaj/ */ˈaw/ /ˈoj/ /ˈow/ */ˈe/ /ʔ/ /t r j/ /w/ /neʔ/ */ˈnet/ */ˈnic/ */e/ Old */aː/ surfaces as /uː/ after nasals and occasionally other consonants: ⟨nṯr⟩ 'god' */ˈnaːcar/ > /ˈnuːte/ ⟨noute⟩ /uː/ has acquired phonemic status, as is evidenced by minimal pairs like 'to approach' ⟨hôn⟩ /hoːn/ < */ˈçaːnan/ ẖnn vs. 'inside' ⟨houn⟩ /huːn/ < */ˈçaːnaw/ ẖnw. An etymological */uː/ > */eː/ often surfaces as /iː/ next to /r/ and after etymological pharyngeals: ⟨hir⟩ < */χuːr/ 'street' (Semitic loan). */aː/ /uː/ */ˈnaːcar/ /ˈnuːte/ /uː/ /hoːn/ */ˈçaːnan/ /huːn/ */ˈçaːnaw/ */uː/ */eː/ /iː/ /r/ */χuːr/ Most Coptic dialects have two phonemic vowels in unstressed position. Unstressed vowels generally became /ə/, written as ⟨e⟩ or null (⟨i⟩ in Bohairic and Fayyumic word finally), but pretonic unstressed /a/ occurs as a reflex of earlier unstressed */e/ near an etymological pharyngeal, velar or sonorant ('to become many' ⟨ašai⟩ < ꜥšꜣ */ʕiˈʃiʀ/) or an unstressed */a/. Pretonic is underlyingly /əj/: Sahidic 'ibis' ⟨hibôi⟩ < h(j)bj.w */hijˈbaːj?w/. /ə/ */e/ */ʕiˈʃiʀ/ */a/ /əj/ */hijˈbaːj?w/ Thus, the following is the Sahidic vowel system c. 400 CE:

vowels, egyptian, unstressed, stressed, e