Proto-Slavic - Grammar - Accent classes

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Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Accent classes Originally in Balto Slavic, there were only two accent classes, barytonic (with fixed stem accent) and mobile (with mobile accent), corresponding to Slavic classes A and C. There was no class with fixed accent on the ending. Both classes originally had both acute and circumflex stems in them. After the operation of Dybo's law, three basic accent classes emerged for nominals (nouns, adjectives, pronouns, participles): barytonic mobile For this purpose, the 'stem' includes any morphological suffixes (e.g. a diminutive suffix), but not generally on the inflectional suffix that indicates the word class (e.g. the ā of feminine ā stem nouns), which is considered part of the ending. Verbs also had three accent classes (A, B and C) with similar characteristics to the corresponding noun classes. However, the situation is somewhat more complicated due to the large number of verb stem classes and the numerous forms in verbal paradigms. ā ā Due to the way in which the accent classes arose, there are certain restrictions: e o ь ъ Some nouns (especially jā stem nouns) fit into the class A pattern but have neoacute accent on the stem, which can have either a short or a long syllable. A standard example is *võľa 'will', with neoacute accent on a short syllable. These nouns earlier belonged to class B; as a result, grammars may treat them as belonging either to classes A or B. jā During the Late Common Slavic period, the class B paradigm became mobile as a result of a complex series of changes that moved the accent leftward in certain circumstances, producing a neoacute accent on the newly stressed syllable. The paradigms below reflect these changes. All languages subsequently simplified the class B paradigms to varying degrees; the older situation can often only be seen in certain nouns in certain languages, or indirectly by way of features such as the Slovene neo circumflex tone that carry echoes of the time when this tone developed. See History of Proto Slavic#Accentual developments for more details. Nouns Nouns The following tables are examples of Proto Slavic noun class paradigms, based on Verweij (1994). There were many changes in accentuation during the Common Slavic period, and there are significant differences in the views of different scholars on how these changes proceeded. As a result, these paradigms do not necessarily reflect a consensus. The view expressed below is that of the Leiden school, following Frederik Kortlandt, whose views are somewhat controversial and not accepted by all scholars. Class A nouns Class A nouns Example Late Common Slavic paradigms in noun class A ^ a b c d e f g h The first form is the result in languages without contraction over /j/ (e.g. Russian), while the second form is the result in languages with such contraction. This contraction can occur only when both vowels flanking /j/ are unstressed, but when it occurs, it occurs fairly early in Late Common Slavic, before Dybo's law (the accentual shift leading to class B nouns). See below. ^ a b c d e f g h a a b b c c d d e e f f g g h h The first form is the result in languages without contraction over /j/ (e.g. Russian), while the second form is the result in languages with such contraction. This contraction can occur only when both vowels flanking /j/ are unstressed, but when it occurs, it occurs fairly early in Late Common Slavic, before Dybo's law (the accentual shift leading to class B nouns). See below. Note that all class A stems are long. This is because all such stems had Balto Slavic acute register in the root, which can only occur on long syllables. (Short syllables, and long syllables with Balto Slavic circumflex register, became class B nouns in Common Slavic.) The distribution of short and long vowels in the stems without /j/ reflects the original vowel lengths, prior to the operation of Van Wijk's law, Dybo's law and Stang's law, which led to class B nouns and the differing lengths in /j/ stems. Class B nouns Class B nouns Example Late Common Slavic paradigms in noun class B ^ This word is reconstructed as *olỳ in Verweij. The initial e , however, is what is found in Derksen (2008) and other sources.^ a b c d e f The first form is the result in languages without contraction over /j/ (e.g. Russian), while the second form is the result in languages with such contraction. This contraction can occur only when both vowels flanking /j/ are unstressed, but when it occurs, it occurs before Dybo's law. At that point in this paradigm, stress was initial, allowing contraction to occur, resulting in a long *ī. As a result, after Dybo's law moved stress onto the vowel, it was retracted again by Stang's law. Without contraction, only Dybo's law applied.^ Verweij has *olènьmъ here, with unexpected mъ ending when class A *kàmy has expected *kàmenьmь. This may be a typo. ^ ^ This word is reconstructed as *olỳ in Verweij. The initial e , however, is what is found in Derksen (2008) and other sources. ^ a b c d e f a a b b c c d d e e f f The first form is the result in languages without contraction over /j/ (e.g. Russian), while the second form is the result in languages with such contraction. This contraction can occur only when both vowels flanking /j/ are unstressed, but when it occurs, it occurs before Dybo's law. At that point in this paradigm, stress was initial, allowing contraction to occur, resulting in a long *ī. As a result, after Dybo's law moved stress onto the vowel, it was retracted again by Stang's law. Without contraction, only Dybo's law applied. before ^ ^ Verweij has *olènьmъ here, with unexpected mъ ending when class A *kàmy has expected *kàmenьmь. This may be a typo. Class B jā stem nouns are not listed here. The combination of Van Wijk's law and Stang's law would have originally produced a complex mobile paradigm in these nouns, different from the mobile paradigm of ā stem and other nouns, but this was apparently simplified in Common Slavic times with a consistent neoacute accent on the stem, as if they were class A nouns. The class B jo stem nouns were also simplified, but less dramatically, with consistent ending stress in the singular but consistent root stress in the plural, as shown. Class B s stem noun are not listed here, because there may not have been any. jā ā jo s Class C nouns Class C nouns

Data Source : WIKIPEDIA
Number of Data columns : 16 Number of Data rows : 13
Categories : economy, demography, politics, knowledge

Dataset

Data row number No Name 0 Masc. short -o Nt. long -o Masc. long -jo Nt. short -jo Fem. short -ā Fem. long -jā Masc. long -i Fem. short -i Masc. long -u Fem. nonsyllabic -ū Fem. short -r Masc. short -n Nt. short -n Nt. short -s Nt. long -nt

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Data Columns

Name Description Data Type
No Name 0 text
Masc. short -o text
Nt. long -o text
Masc. long -jo text
Nt. short -jo text
Fem. short -ā text
Fem. long -jā text
Masc. long -i text
Fem. short -i text
Masc. long -u text
Fem. nonsyllabic -ū text
Fem. short -r text
Masc. short -n text
Nt. short -n text
Nt. short -s text
Nt. long -nt text

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Afrikaans - Grammar - Afrikaans: Ek wil dit nie doen nie.* (lit. I want this not do not.)Dutch: Ik wil dit niet doen.English: I do not want to do this.German: Ich will dies nicht tun.

From WIKIPEDIA

Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Afrikaans: Ek wil dit nie doen nie.* (lit. I want this not do not.) Ek wil dit nie doen nie. lit. Dutch: Ik wil dit niet doen. Ik wil dit niet doen. English: I do not want to do this. German: Ich will dies nicht tun. Ich will dies nicht tun. * Compare with Ek wil nie dit doen nie, which changes the meaning to 'I want not to do this.' Whereas Ek wil nie dit doen nie emphasizes a lack of desire to act, Ek wil dit nie doen nie emphasizes the act itself. Ek wil nie dit doen nie Ek wil nie dit doen nie Ek wil nie dit doen nie Ek wil nie dit doen nie Ek wil dit nie doen nie Ek wil dit nie doen nie The ne was the Middle Dutch way to negate but it has been suggested that since ne became highly non voiced, nie or niet was needed to complement the ne. With time the ne disappeared in most Dutch dialects. ne ne ne ne nie nie nie niet niet niet ne ne ne ne The double negative construction has been fully grammaticalised in standard Afrikaans and its proper use follows a set of fairly complex rules as the examples below show:

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