Influenza - History - Pandemics

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Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Pandemics The symptoms of human influenza were clearly described by Hippocrates roughly 2,400 years ago. Although the virus seems to have caused epidemics throughout human history, historical data on influenza are difficult to interpret, because the symptoms can be similar to those of other respiratory diseases. The disease may have spread from Europe to the Americas as early as the European colonization of the Americas; since almost the entire indigenous population of the Antilles was killed by an epidemic resembling influenza that broke out in 1493, after the arrival of Christopher Columbus. The first convincing record of an influenza pandemic was of an outbreak in 1580, which began in Russia and spread to Europe via Africa. In Rome, over 8,000 people were killed, and several Spanish cities were almost wiped out. Pandemics continued sporadically throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, with the pandemic of 1830–1833 being particularly widespread; it infected approximately a quarter of the people exposed. The most famous and lethal outbreak was the 1918 flu pandemic (Spanish flu pandemic) (type A influenza, H1N1 subtype), which lasted from 1918 to 1919. It is not known exactly how many it killed, but estimates range from 50 to 100 million people. This pandemic has been described as 'the greatest medical holocaust in history' and may have killed as many people as the Black Death. This huge death toll was caused by an extremely high infection rate of up to 50% and the extreme severity of the symptoms, suspected to be caused by cytokine storms. Symptoms in 1918 were so unusual that initially influenza was misdiagnosed as dengue, cholera, or typhoid. One observer wrote, 'One of the most striking of the complications was hemorrhage from mucous membranes, especially from the nose, stomach, and intestine. Bleeding from the ears and petechial hemorrhages in the skin also occurred.' The majority of deaths were from bacterial pneumonia, a secondary infection caused by influenza, but the virus also killed people directly, causing massive hemorrhages and edema in the lung. The 1918 flu pandemic was truly global, spreading even to the Arctic and remote Pacific islands. The unusually severe disease killed between two and twenty percent of those infected, as opposed to the more usual flu epidemic mortality rate of 0.1%. Another unusual feature of this pandemic was that it mostly killed young adults, with 99% of pandemic influenza deaths occurring in people under 65, and more than half in young adults 20 to 40 years old. This is unusual since influenza is normally most deadly to the very young (under age 2) and the very old (over age 70). The total mortality of the 1918–1919 pandemic is not known, but it is estimated that 2.5% to 5% of the world's population was killed. As many as 25 million may have been killed in the first 25 weeks; in contrast, HIV/AIDS has killed 25 million in its first 25 years. Later flu pandemics were not so devastating. They included the 1957 Asian Flu (type A, H2N2 strain) and the 1968 Hong Kong Flu (type A, H3N2 strain), but even these smaller outbreaks killed millions of people. In later pandemics antibiotics were available to control secondary infections and this may have helped reduce mortality compared to the Spanish Flu of 1918.

Data Source : WIKIPEDIA
Number of Data columns : 6 Number of Data rows : 6
Categories : economy, demography, politics, knowledge

Dataset

Data row number Name of pandemic Date Deaths Case fatality rate Subtype involved Pandemic Severity Index

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Data Columns

Name Description Data Type
Name of pandemic text
Date text
Deaths text
Case fatality rate text
Subtype involved text
Pandemic Severity Index text

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Liste des musée du departement Calvados(14) en France. Cette liste a été constituée en utilisant le fichier de la base SIREN fournie par l'INSEE.
Code NAF de musée : 91.02Z : Gestion des musées. Nombre de musée: Le departement Calvados(14) a 15 musée.
Le nombre d'habitants du departement Calvados est de 691453.
Densité de musée: en Calvados, il y a 46096.87 habitants par musée.
Le pouvoir d'achat quotidien potentiel moyen de la zone de chalandise par musée en Calvados est de: 129260.67 €.
Le fichier disponible 'Densité rentabilité musée France par département' est disponible sur Basedig et fourni des analyses de rentabilité potentielles par activité pour ce type d'activité.
Basedig fourni egalement des analyses sur la croissance du nombre de musée ainsi que des alertes mensuelles fournissant des listes précises de création de musée par département dans toute la France. N'hésitez pas à nous contacter pour plus d'informations.
Les fichiers d'entreprises disponibles sur Basedig peuvent être utilisés pour réaliser des études de marché, pour la prospection, le démarchage, la réalisation de business plan, le planning stratégique de réseaux de vente ou de franchise. D'autres listes et fichiers pour d'autres types d'activités et d'unités légales de la base SIREN et d'autres départements sont disponibles sur Basedig. Des analyses du potentiel économique, avec des données précises de chiffre d'affaire, de croissance, de nombre d'employés et de profitabilité par département peuvent également être téléchargées. Cet annuaire est disponible en téléchargement. Il est possible de le télécharger sous forme de fichier Excel, fichier CSV ou JSON.

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