Nynorsk - Grammar - Verb conjugation

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Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Verb conjugation As in other continental Scandinavian languages, verb conjugation is quite simple as they are not conjugated in person, unlike English and other European languages. Verbs are divided into two conjugation classes; strong and weak verbs, where the weak verbs further are divided into different categories; a verbs, j verbs, short verbs and e verbs (some e verbs with de in the preterite tense and some with te in the preterite tense). The conjugation class decides what inflection the verb will be getting for the different tenses and what kind of past participle inflection it gets. For instance will e verbs with de in the preterite be inflected in both gender and number for the past participles, while those with te will be inflected only in number, as described in the past participle section. Unlike Bokmål, Nynorsk has a more marked difference between strong and weak verbs which is very common in dialects all over Norway. It's a system which resembles the Swedish verb conjugation system. Weak verbs To identify what conjugation class a verb pertains to; j verbs will have je/ ja in the infinitive. e verbs have er in present tense. a verbs have ar in the present tense and a in the preterite. Strong verbs All strong verbs have no ending in the present and preterite forms and the only difference between these forms is an umlaut. Comparison with English, strong verb «drikke» Just like in Bokmål and in most other Germanic languages, there is no difference between the simple tenses and the continuous tenses in Nynorsk. This means for instance that «drikk» will cover both of the present forms «drink/drinking» in English. All users can choose to follow a system of either an e or an a ending on the infinitives of verbs. That is, one can for instance choose to write either «å skrive» or «å skriva» (the latter is common in west Norwegian dialects). There is also a system where one can use both a endings and e endings at certain verbs, this system is known as «kløyvd infinitiv». As can be shown from the conjugation tables, the removal of the vocal ending of the infinitive creates the imperative form of the verb «kjøp deg ei ny datamaskin!» (buy yourself a new computer!). This is true for all weak and strong verbs. Ergative verbs Ergative verbs There are ergative verbs in both Bokmål and Nynorsk. A verb in Norwegian that is ergative has two different conjugations, either weak or strong. The two different conjugation patterns, though similar, have two different meanings. A verb with a weak conjugation as in the section above, will have an object, that is, the weak conjugated verb is transitive. The verb with strong conjugation will not have an object. The strongly conjugated verbs are intransitive. The system of ergative verbs is more pronounced in Nynorsk than in Bokmål. An ergative verb in Bokmål will have two different conjugations only for the preterite tense for strong verbs due to the influence of Danish that did not have strong ergative verbs, while all ergative verbs in Nynorsk have two different conjugations for all tenses like Swedish. Ergative verbs are also very common in Norwegian dialects, like in the following example.

Data Source : WIKIPEDIA
Number of Data columns : 6 Number of Data rows : 2
Categories : economy, demography, politics, knowledge


Data row number Infinitive present preterite present perfect perfect participle, masc/fem perfect participle, neuter

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Data Columns

Name Description Data Type
Infinitive text
present text
preterite text
present perfect text
perfect participle, masc/fem text
perfect participle, neuter text

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