Hoava language - Grammar - Pronouns

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Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Pronouns Personal pronouns Personal pronouns Information in the following sections is based on Davis 2003:45 109, unless otherwise stated. Subsequent references give only relevant page numbers and figures. Within the Language Hoava there exists three sets of characteristics in order to distinguish between which personal pronoun is to be used. This includes whether the pronoun is; first, second or third person. The Plurality needed, whether it is singular or plural and whether it is Inclusion or exclusion. Personal Pronouns in Hoava gita rao gami goe gamu i(sa) ria (pg 46, Figure 63) There are a number of extra circumstances and exceptions which are also present when discussing the use of personal pronouns. One specific example of this is the third person singular form isa which is used as an emphatic (forcible) form or used to refer to a particular topic. Speakers of Hoava tend to use sa for a more general pronoun. isa sa The third person pronoun eri is used with a dual form created by using the number two ‘karu’ after a plural pronoun. A trial form is also created by using the number three prefix ‘ka hike’. The dual forms are obligatory whereas trial forms can be replaced by a simple plural. eri karu Forms specific for four people are common when it is significant to know that four people were involved. The number four follows the pronoun with the number prefix added e.g. gita ka made, gami ka made. Other numbers can be substituted into a sentence in the same matter. When these dual or numerical forms are used, it is most commonly at the start of a narrative to add the names of the others in the group. This does not include the speaker themselves. These pronoun forms can come before a noun phrase in apposition. gita ka made, gami ka made Examples: Sagele pale mae eri karu Sagele pale mae eri karu Go.up return come PRO:3PL two ‘They (two) came back up.’ (Pg 47, Figure 68) Some other characteristics to note with the use of pronouns in Hoava is that pronouns can be followed by demonstratives and by the restrictive particle qa, an example of this can be seen below. qa, There exist some cases in Hoava in which it is not completely necessary for a pronoun to be present or where exceptions to the use of pronouns exist. Firstly; It is common for the pronoun to be dropped from a sentence completely once it has been made clear who is being referred to, or if it is clear who is being referred to by other information such as object markers. Also, the dropping of pronouns referring to animate objects is predominantly done with first person singular and plural and second person plural pronouns in object position, as the object marker on the verb is the same as the pronoun. Inanimate objects in Hoava do not often have a pronominal reference; a construction which resembles a pronoun to identify the object. However, it is possible to use a pronoun for an inanimate object even though it is rare. Within Hoava Language there exists no reflexive forms of the pronouns. In order to create the same meaning as a reflexive the verb pule (meaning return) is used. “There is no subject or object pronoun used, other than the object marker on the applicative suffix…in any of the sentences elicited with the pule used in this manner.” (pg.49) pule Vaquru teqe pule ni rao qa Vaquru teqe pule ni rao qa New cut return AP 1SG REST ‘I’ve just cut myself.’ (Pg 49, Figure 78b) As you can see in the example above pule has been used with the applicable suffix and the singular, exclusive first person, pronoun rao, to create the meaning of the reflexive form ‘I’ve’. Also, the pronoun is followed by the restrictive particle qa which is a characteristic that was mentioned earlier to sometimes occur with the use of pronouns. pule rao, qa The morpheme tale can also be used in the instances mentioned above but rather than performing a reflexive function it acts as an emphasis that no other people were involved apart from the speaker. tale Vaquru teqe pulu ni a tale na. Vaquru teqe pulu ni a tale na. New cut return AP 3SG alone 3SG ‘(She) has just cut herself.’ (Pg. 49, Figure 79) Within the lexicon of Hoava there exists some verbs which have an inherent reflexive meaning built into them and so therefore the use of an extra form which suggests that it is reflexive is not needed. These are verbs which automatically mean performing an action to oneself such as; hele ‘wash oneself’ or viraka ‘scratch (oneself)’ hele viraka Demonstrative pronouns Demonstrative pronouns In Hoava there exists a three way spatial differentiation of deixis. This includes: proximal, close to the speaker; distal, close to the hearer; and remote, distant for the speaker and the hearer. Of the three sets of demonstratives in Hoava two sets concern the use of pronouns. A set of long forms that are used as both noun modifiers and as demonstrative pronouns and another set which is restricted to being used only as demonstrative pronouns. An extra set of ‘near to hearer’ long demonstratives is also used both as a noun modifier and demonstrative pronoun. These sets all have both singular and plural forms which can be used. Long Demonstratives of Hoava heni heri sani sari hunai huari (Pg. 81) These long demonstratives can act as demonstrative pronouns at the beginning of a noun phrase. An example of the use of long demonstratives is as follows: Heri ria nikana vihe. Heri ria nikana vihe. PROX:PL ART:PL man choose ‘These are the chosen men.’ (pg.85, figure 204d) It is more common in Hoava for the morphemes isana and tiara to be used in place as demonstrative pronouns in favour of the singular distal demonstratives sani and the plural sari. It is also not common for the remote demonstratives Huani and Huari to be used. isana tiara sani sari. Huani Huari Hoava has a set of short demonstratives, which are a group of particles found after the noun head of a noun phrase. They have the noun modifying function of adding a sense of definiteness and they may also signify tense. They can be used with common nouns, names, and pronouns. Short Demonstratives of Hoava ni ri na ra so ro (Pg 87. Figure 212) For example, a short demonstrative follows a personal pronoun: Kolo, na sa taveti a gamu na? Kolo, na sa taveti a gamu na? Friend ART what do.TR 3SG POR:2PL DEM ‘Friend, what are you doing?’ (pg.87, figure 213c) The long demonstratives mentioned above cannot occur after the emphatic particles ba and ga as another set of emphatic demonstrative pronouns exist for that case. This other set is used also in questions or as an alternative to the long forms. ba ga

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