Ellen DeGeneres - Filmography - Television

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Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Television

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Number of Data columns : 4 Number of Data rows : 33
Categories : economy, demography, politics, knowledge


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Computer security compromised by hardware failure - Devices - Keyboard


Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Keyboard Electromagnetic emanations Electromagnetic emanations Computer keyboards are often used to transmit confidential data such as passwords. Since they contain electronic components, keyboards emit electromagnetic waves. These emanations could reveal sensitive information such as keystrokes. Electromagnetic emanations have turned out to constitute a security threat to computer equipment. The figure below presents how a keystroke is retrieved and what material is necessary. The approach is to acquire the raw signal directly from the antenna and to process the entire captured electromagnetic spectrum. Thanks to this method, four different kinds of compromising electromagnetic emanations have been detected, generated by wired and wireless keyboards. These emissions lead to a full or a partial recovery of the keystrokes. The best practical attack fully recovered 95% of the keystrokes of a PS/2 keyboard at a distance up to 20 meters, even through walls. Because each keyboard has a specific fingerprint based on the clock frequency inconsistencies, it can determine the source keyboard of a compromising emanation, even if multiple keyboards from the same model are used at the same time. wired and wireless The four different kinds way of compromising electromagnetic emanations are described below. The Falling Edge Transition Technique The Falling Edge Transition Technique When a key is pressed, released or held down, the keyboard sends a packet of information known as a scan code to the computer. The protocol used to transmit these scan codes is a bidirectional serial communication, based on four wires: Vcc (5 volts), ground, data and clock. Clock and data signals are identically generated. Hence, the compromising emanation detected is the combination of both signals. However, the edges of the data and the clock lines are not superposed. Thus, they can be easily separated to obtain independent signals. The Generalized Transition Technique The Generalized Transition Technique The Falling Edge Transition attack is limited to a partial recovery of the keystrokes. This is a significant limitation. The GTT is a falling edge transition attack improved, which recover almost all keystrokes. Indeed, between two traces, there is exactly one data rising edge. If attackers are able to detect this transition, they can fully recover the keystrokes. The Modulation Technique The Modulation Technique Harmonics compromising electromagnetic emissions come from unintentional emanations such as radiations emitted by the clock, non linear elements, crosstalk, ground pollution, etc. Determining theoretically the reasons of these compromising radiations is a very complex task. These harmonics correspond to a carrier of approximately 4 MHz which is very likely the internal clock of the micro controller inside the keyboard. These harmonics are correlated with both clock and data signals, which describe modulated signals (in amplitude and frequency) and the full state of both clock and data signals. This means that the scan code can be completely recovered from these harmonics. The Matrix Scan Technique The Matrix Scan Technique Keyboard manufacturers arrange the keys in a matrix. The keyboard controller, often an 8 bit processor, parses columns one by one and recovers the state of 8 keys at once. This matrix scan process can be described as 192 keys (some keys may not be used, for instance modern keyboards use 104/105 keys) arranged in 24 columns and 8 rows. These columns are continuously pulsed one by one for at least 3μs. Thus, these leads may act as an antenna and generate electromagnetic emanations. If an attacker is able to capture these emanations, he can easily recover the column of the pressed key. Even if this signal does not fully describe the pressed key, it still gives partial information on the transmitted scan code, i.e. the column number. Note that the matrix scan routine loops continuously. When no key is pressed, we still have a signal composed of multiple equidistant peaks. These emanations may be used to remotely detect the presence of powered computers. Concerning wireless keyboards, the wireless data burst transmission can be used as an electromagnetic trigger to detect exactly when a key is pressed, while the matrix scan emanations are used to determine the column it belongs to. Summary Summary Some techniques can only target some keyboards. This table sums up which technique could be used to find keystroke for different kind of keyboard. In their paper called 'Compromising Electromagnetic Emanations of Wired and Wireless Keyboards', Martin Vuagnoux and Sylvain Pasini tested 12 different keyboard models, with PS/2, USB connectors and wireless communication in different setups: a semi anechoic chamber, a small office, an adjacent office and a flat in a building. The table below presents their results.

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Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Vital statistics

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Apophony - Description - Present tensePast tensejumpjumpedsingsangSingularPluralbookbooksgoosegeese


Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Present tensePast tensejumpjumpedsingsangSingularPluralbookbooksgoosegeese

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