World Bank Indicator GFDD.OI.19

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Banking crisis dummy (1=banking crisis, 0=none) Source: Global Financial Development A banking crisis is defined as systemic if two conditions are met: a. Significant signs of financial distress in the banking system (as indicated bysignificant bank runs, losses in the banking system, and/or bank liquidations), b. Significant banking policy intervention measures in response to significant losses in the banking system. The first year that both criteria are met is considered as the year when the crisis start becoming systemic. The end of a crisis is defined the year before both real GDP growth and real credit growth are positive for at least two consecutive years. Luc Laeven and Fabián Valencia, 2012. “Systemic Banking Crises Database: An Update”, IMF Working Paper WP/12/163

Data Source : WORLD BANK
Number of Data columns : 8 Number of Data rows : 12400
Categories : development


Data row number indicator id indicator name country id country name country ISO 3 Code date value decimal

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Data Columns

Name Description Data Type
indicator id text
indicator name text
country id text
country name text
country ISO 3 Code text
date integer
value integer
decimal integer

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Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Individual honours SPFA awards SPFA awards SFWA awards SFWA awards

honours, individual, scottish, football, 2003

User:GB fan


Structured data parsed from Wikipedia.

user, gb, fan, wikipedia, from

Roundedness - Types of rounding


Structured data parsed from Wikipedia. Types of rounding @media all and (max width:720px){.mw parser output .tmulti>.thumbinner{width:100%!important;max width:none!important}.mw parser output .tmulti .tsingle{float:none!important;max width:none!important;width:100%!important;text align:center}} There are two types of vowel rounding: protrusion and compression. In protruded rounding, the corners of the mouth are drawn together and the lips protrude like a tube, with their inner surface visible. In compressed rounding, the corners of the mouth are drawn together, but the lips are also drawn together horizontally ('compressed') and do not protrude, with only their outer surface visible. That is, in protruded vowels the inner surfaces of the lips form the opening (thus the alternate term endolabial), whereas in compressed vowels it is the margins of the lips which form the opening (thus exolabial). (Catford 1982, p. 172) observes that back and central rounded vowels, such as German /o/ and /u/, are typically protruded, whereas front rounded vowels such as German /ø/ and /y/ are typically compressed. Back or central compressed vowels and front protruded vowels are uncommon, and a contrast between the two types has been found to be phonemic in only one instance. protrusion compression endolabial exolabial). /o/ /u/ /ø/ /y/ There are no dedicated IPA diacritics to represent the distinction, but the superscript IPA letter ⟨◌ᵝ⟩ can be used for compression and ⟨◌ʷ⟩, ⟨◌ᶣ⟩ or ⟨◌̫⟩ for protrusion. Compressed vowels may be pronounced either with the corners of the mouth drawn in, by some definitions rounded, or with the corners spread and, by the same definitions, unrounded. The distinction may be transcribed ⟨ɨᵝ ɯᵝ⟩ and ⟨ʉᵝ uᵝ⟩. ◌ᵝ ◌ʷ ◌ᶣ ◌̫ ɨᵝ ɯᵝ ʉᵝ uᵝ The distinction between protruded and compressed holds for the semivowels and as well as labialization. In Akan, for example, the is compressed, as are labio palatalized consonants as in Twi 'Twi' and adwuma 'work', whereas and simply labialized consonants are protruded. In Japanese, the /w/ is compressed rather than protruded, paralleling the Japanese /u/. The distinction applies marginally to other consonants. In Southern Teke, the sole language reported to have a phonemic /ɱ/, the labiodental sound is 'accompanied by strong protrusion of both lips', whereas the found as an allophone of /m/ before /f, v/ in languages such as English is not protruded, as the lip contacts the teeth along its upper or outer edge. Also, in at least one account of speech acquisition, a child's pronunciation of clown involves a lateral with the upper teeth contacting the upper outer edge of the lip, but in crown, a non lateral is pronounced with the teeth contacting the inner surface of the protruded lower lip. Twi adwuma /w/ /u/ /ɱ/ /m/ /f, v/ clown crown Some vowels transcribed with rounded IPA letters may not be rounded at all. An example is /ɒ/, which in English has very little if any rounding of the lips. The 'throaty' sound of English /ɒ/ is instead accomplished with sulcalization, a furrowing of the back of the tongue also found in non rhotic /ɜː/. /ɒ/ /ɒ/ /ɜː/ It is possible to mimic the acoustic effect of rounded vowels by narrowing the cheeks, so called 'cheek rounding', which is inherent in back protruded (but not front compressed) vowels. The technique is used by ventriloquists to mask the visible rounding of back vowels like . It is not clear if it is used by languages with rounded vowels that do not use visible rounding.

rounding, types, back, front, central